Here’s another post on the long slow cultural death of Detroit Michigan. The United States of America is the only country in the world that would allow it’s vital and actual cultural fabric and history to decompose into a rotting corpse in it’s own house, as if it’s a natural turn of events.Talk about fiddling while Rome burns, this is how it happens.
Archive for the ‘culture’ Category
Advertisement in 1919 Christmas issue of Country Life.
You’ve come a long way baby, or so it would seem.
And on another note, has anyone noticed how Christmas cards have evolved recently? Almost every card we received this year have been those internet blank fill in the picture kind, that has the net effect of making them indistinguishable from run of the mill junk mail. I wonder how many cards have gone unnoticed in the routine daily junk mail shuffle into the re-cycle.
Like so much else the hand of art has gone missing from everyday life.
Some from the 20′s:
Thought I’d follow up on the 20′s posts with some period examples of the lowly peoples art of illustration. Never mind that the illustration is usually considered something beneath the crowning heights of fine art, in spite of the fact that illustration in the 20′s not only paralleled developments in fine art but anticipated beforehand, many of the ideas and did so in a fashion more easily accessible and understood by the masses of the population. Its no wonder that this era of illustration is now thought of as the golden age of illustration, between as it were, the full realization of photography and the demands of a new emerging modern consumer culture.
Cole Phillips, Girl Reading, 1925
Marjory Woodbury, McCallum Sik Hosery, 1920
Herbert Paus, Popular Science, 1929
Jorge Darradas, ABC Magazine, 1921
F.X. Leyendecker, Life Magazine, 1922
Unknown artist, Garden Magazine,1924
Unknown artist, Vanity Fair, 1925
Cole Phillips, Life magazine, 1929
Unknown artist, A new Way of Living, 1929
Jorge Darradas, ABC Magazine, 1921
Herbert Paus, Popular Science, 1929
Maxfield Parrish, Grand Canyon of the Colorado, 1927
Unknown artist, perfume advertisement, 1920′s
Leon Benigini, 1920′s
Unknown artist, Vogue Magazine, 1920
Louise Brooks, To Know a Veil — 2010 7″ x 9″, spray paint on panel.
“I don’t paint what I think, I paint what I know”
Thought I’d say a couple more things about (silent film actress, dancer, and writer) Louise Brooks. Prior to my little fora back to the 1920′s these last couple of months, I didn’t really have good of a picture of Louise Brooks, other than the standard iconic haircut image of the flappers and the long lingering effects that image had on film and fashion. My only excuse is that in the long run I’ve never developed much of an interest in movie stars, or celebrities for that matter, but as it happened, the more I found out about Louise Brooks, the more I was drawn in and the more I had to know – but now that I did this I see that it’s typical of the Brooksian phenomena – or obsession, depending on what you make of it. So as it now stands, I’ve seen all of her significant films, read much of the literature and video interviews associated with her, including the (monumental) 600 page Barry Paris biography, and having done all that, I’m left with a little bit more than the generalized understanding of the legend, martyrdom, or the opaque enigma, that has come to define who Louise Brooks was. As it would appear that the life of Louise is fraught with contradiction, being variously described as the life of a beautiful, talented, but self centered hedonist, a nymphomaniac, gin guzzling, alcoholic, and ultimately self destructive nihilist, or contrarily, as an amazing actress that revolutionized film acting, that rebelled against male dominated culture, and routinely and predictably pissed on every hand that pretended to reach out to her, and finally, against all odds, singlehandedly reincarnated herself (yet again) late in life as a writer. Or in other words, Louise Brooks had become the stuff of worthy of an Americanized modern version from Greek mythology.
My take on Louise Brooks is that she was in part and degrees all of these things together, and a whole lot more. Essentially, and accounting for everything she did – seemingly sensible or not – was the fact that the connecting thread of all her exploits – Louise Brooks was an artist, and an artist with a fanatical heart, at that. It wasn’t enough that she was not only mystically beautiful and massively talented, she had an insatiable desire to “know”, and so used her talent and beauty to burrow deeper yet into what she considered “the truth”, and this necessarily involved her notorious abandon and sexual promiscuity as the primary vehicle to transcend the ordinary, the pedestrian, and most especially, the power elite’s (symbolized by the Hollywood – Wall St connection) sub culture of male domination and control.
In this sense Louise operated in society like a black hole, sucking every scintilla of energy from those around her in order to satisfy her own personal desires as an artist, to “know”, and she did this by and large without effort – which of course made it all the more disarming, confusing, if not ultimately, threatening.
Least we forget, this was all happened in the heat of the roaring 20′s in the midst of America’s first major cultural clash between the forces of traditional society with its static inflexible Christian based social morality, and the freewheeling dynamism of modernity, and Louise was in all probability, the first woman to step into and assume the fullest dimensions of what the modern liberated woman without limits or abandon could become.
As it happened, Louise was raised in an unusually progressive modern family in Kansas, by a mother who was entirely spellbound by the liberal possibilities of modern art and progressive ideas. Who got so absorbed in it that she failed to notice she also had children, who were then left to fend for themselves as some sort of miniature Randian individuals.
Which in context if you think about it, is a cultural mirror image of people in general, living in a modern society that fails to replace the old traditional modes of social securities with government sponsored rights and securities, where people are left to face the whims of circumstances and fate as isolated disconnected individuals. It’s in this context that Louise discovered her mothers vast library of modern music and literature and proceeded to devour it in its entirety. In a sense, Louise’s guiding principals became established by the artists she consumed in her parents library, instead of the typical and expected influences of traditional parental/family oversight. It was also in this context, that the adolescent Louise was sexually molested by her neighbor, the illusive and mysterious “Mr. Flowers”.
It’s the confluence of these events that would go on to define the identity of Louise Brooks first and foremost, if not exclusively, as an artist. An artist of natural beauty and physical talent as a dancer for sure, but informed primarily as an individual driven by the events of her life to explore the deeper and darker sources of her (and our) discontent, which of course, led directly to the great nexus of power and sex, as well as the conflict of modern feminine autonomy and male dominated authority. Louise as much spells this out in her typically self effacing manner, in a letter to biographer James Card:
“There isn’t anything wise or clever in what I do anyhow. If I am drawn to a man, I simply move right into the center of him. I know him immediately and intimately. There isn’t room inside him for me and whatever is phony, so the phoniness has to go.”
Or, one would assume, the man has to go – but, more to the point in this:
“Well, I was crazy about him, yeah (long time flame George Marshall) But the word love – no, I don’t think I ever loved the men I knew. It’s a very strange thing I’ve noticed that very often the men who were best in bed were the men I cared the least about. The men who were the worst in bed were the men I liked the most….I don’t know why… I always liked the bastards”
And it’s here where biographer Barry Paris delivers at the end of the book, the money quote from one of Louise’s favorite authors, Marcel Proust:
” Everything great in the world comes from neurotics. They alone have founded our religions and composed our masterpieces. Never will the world know all it owes to them nor all that they have suffered to enrich us. We enjoy lovely music, beautiful paintings, a thousand intellectual delicacies, but we have no idea of their cost, to those who invented them, in sleepless nights, tears, spasmodic laughter, rashes, asthma, and the fear of death, which is worse than all the rest.”
Consciously or self consciously not, Louise Brooks relentlessly assumed this role of the artist first, in what one can only concur in retrospect, as a kind of performance art, that was to become the connective tissue of the many forms it assumed in defining her life. The infamy of her sexual promiscuity was in actuality, the focus of her art, by which she kept pure through a self imposed denial of reciprocal love, personal contentment, and success or fame in her professional career. Louise went for the “bastards” in her life precisely because of this – they delivered the essential content – not in love or even sexual gratification, but the means and methods of how male dominated society uses sex for the purposes of power. Throughout her life she sucked men into her charms in order to witness the variety of what they really wanted, power, of some fashion or the other. They desired her for alternative reasons and that by fucking her they would confirm and satisfy these alternative desires and motives. And then she would in effect follow conquest with conquest by fucking them over, because she had no alternative motives whereby they could exploit, they were never able to dominate or control her.
It’s with this pretext that when Louise answered German director G.W. Pabst’s call to star in his rendition of the femme-fatale film, Pandora’s Box (1928), she was most able to unselfconsciously play the lead part of LuLu, saying only in retrospect, that she “was only playing herself”. This self knowledge of immediately and intimately “knowing”, enabled Louise to play the role of LuLu by transcending the usual exaggerated affectations typical of silent films of the era. Her beauty and talent of effortless natural motion learned from her dance experience, coupled with her personal sub-text of sexually driven “knowledge” generated a seamless expression that rendered by comparison, all previous film characterizations, imaging, and accepted acting technique – obsolete. Director Pabst, and the context of the more advanced modernist German cinema environment, was more fully prepared to capitalize on the artistic talents and temperaments that Louise was able to deliver. Which by all accounts were, some thirty odd years ahead of its time. But no matter, because true to Louise’s standard operating procedure in art and life LuLu was deemed to hot to handle, and the censors scissors cast the film and especially Louise herself, into a state of disrepute and rejection. Which is of course fuel for great mystery of her career whereby she thought that because she did it “her way”, against the formality of conventions (which she despised) and failed, that henceforth she would always characterize her film career disparagingly as a non serious attempt and a failure on her part. No matter that when Pabst called her back later the next year and she willingly and without missing a beat, returned to Berlin and did a repeat performance in Diary of a Lost Girl (1929), that once again true to pattern, was chopped up by the censors and panned by the public. This hardly the behavior of someone who considered herself inadequate, but more of an indication of someone who saw herself on some kind of personal long term (artistic) mission of which the full impact was only temporarily victimized by the usual suspects of power, money, and retarded convention. At any rate Louise Brooks always stuck to her guns – from her meteoric rise in the dance world, to a film actress, to gallivanting high society muckraker,to finally near the end of her life, a writer of significance holed up in a tiny two room apartment in Rochester New York – and never capitulated to the endless efforts to exploit her or her art for ulterior purposes, which has in the end endowed her a near mythic status far greater than her more conventionally successful peers.
Simply put, she never sold out, and dually paid the consequences like the good soldier of art, she was.
Viewing this clip should become a new holiday tradition, whereby the nation should be forced to watch this piece of high political theater every Thanksgiving. Everything you need to know about America, it’s people, it’s politicians, its media, its domestic and foreign policies are compressed into this tight little blood clot of a metaphor.
As Julie Marsden in Jezebel, 1938 – 2010, 7″ x 9″ spray paint on panel.
A great film that won Bette an Oscar for best female actress. The film takes place in the antebellum South just prior to the first great American struggle between modernity and tradition, the civil war. From this perspective, the film narrative is developed through the Davis character and her engagement to a young banker Preston Dillard (played by Henry Fonda). Julie and her family are slave holding plantation owners steeped in the traditional old honor society ways, while Preston is familiar with and sympathetic to the modernist anti-slavery North. The highlight encounter between the two takes place when Julie begs Preston to go out with her to buy a dress for the big “Olympus Ball” where all the young debutantes must wear white dresses, but, he refuses because he’s too busy with business. Julie, in a rage goes out and in a fit of martyrdom chooses to purchase a red dress as a misguided attempt to impress Preston with her independence (or her modernity in the face of tradition). Preston tries in vain to convince Julie to change dresses before the big event and when she refuses, decides to take her there anyway. When they arrive, they of course, create a big spectacle and Julie, now aware of her mistake begs Preston to take her home. Preston refuses, and in response to her obstinacy, forces Julie to dance with him on a dance floor that soon empties out and even the band stops playing. Soon after, with the engagement off, Preston travels north on business, and returns a year later with a Dr Livingston, and his new northern bride Amy. Preston brings news foreshadowing the differences between the tradition bound south and the dynamic industrialized north that bodes ill for the south. Julie in another attempt to manipulate Preston into her favor incites a confrontation between Preston and her other hometown suitor Buck, that soon goes bad with Preston’s brother assuming the honor role of his brother in a duel with Buck. Unexpectedly, the brother wins the duel and Julie’s other, secondary love interest is killed. In the meantime, Preston has traveled to nearby New Orleans with Dr Livingston to help deal with a massive yellow fever outbreak sweeping the city. Soon after arriving, Preston himself is stricken with the fever and both Julie and Amy travel to be at Preston’s bedside. In the dramatic conclusion of the film, Julie, in an impassioned martyr’s plea (to recoup her honor) convinces the more rational (liberal) Amy that she can better tend to to Preston’s needs. And the film ends with Julie and Preston being carted off, with the other sick and dying to a quarantine island, and an almost certain death.
It’s interesting to note that Julie’s personification of traditional southern honor culture is primarily dependent on two courses of action; manipulation and display of commitment. Throughout the film Julie tries to stage events in order to facilitate sympathy to her desires. From the red dress sequence, to gathering up their slaves to sing songs together (to dispel the notion that they were there against their will), or to orchestrating the threat of a duel of honor between her love interests, she is ultimately insecure about whether to leave other people the freedom to assess the situation and decide things on their own merits. She then backs up the manipulation with her own honor code commitment to, if necessary, escalate the threat of violence right on up to the ultimate degree of self sacrifice and martyrdom. It’s this final act of fanatical commitment that eventually defeats her liberal rival Amy, who in the end looks weak, indecisive, and unreliable.
If any of that seems not so unfamiliar to our current ideological debates, it’s because these ideological differences have not passed, and are still actively at work today.
Here’s a list of some of the things that happened in the 1920′s that either parallel, or went on to become the origins of, many of the issues we confront today. Much on this list is the results of a clash between modernity and entrenched tradition. The full force of which manifested itself in a multifaceted array of conflicting needs. And judging from the relevancy of the list to circumstances today, it’s pretty evident that either we’ve been living in an endlessly repeating groundhog day tape loop for the last 90 years, or have simply failed to make any corrections that might remedy these conflicts so we can move on.
1 ) 3 consecutive Republican business friendly administrations (the modern counterpart would be economic policies of Clinton, Bush,& Obama)
2 ) Record low taxes on the top percentile – 28% in 1925
3 ) The adoption of what we now call supply side economics.
4 ) The deregulation of financial activity.
5 ) The beginnings of a widespread use of cheap credit.
6 ) High degree of financial speculation, for the first time including the emerging middle class.
7 ) The highest degree of income disparity, until now.
8 ) Massive financial failure due to speculative bubble 1929.
9 ) Prohibition of alcohol, and the rise of violent crime syndicates that deal the goods. (now – Mexican cartels, bloods, crips, etc in U.S.A. along with the glamorization of “gangsta” violence in rap music & hip hop culture)
10 ) Anti-immigration hysteria with harsh new laws limiting immigration passed in 1921 and 1922, limiting to 3% from any country of origin, reaching a total limit of only 150,000 in 22.
11 ) Widespread fear of “subversive” left wing political groups like the IWW, and various communist/socialist organizations. Many leaders arrested and convicted by dubious judicial means. (largely accomplished post McCarthy, decline of unions & demonetization of anything left of Benito Mussolini)
12 ) Foreign military interventions and occupations based on economic criteria, the so called banana wars in Central America, and the Caribbean. The U.S. occupied Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti, and Dominican Republic simultaneously.
13 ) The notable rise and legitimization of nativist right wing populist groups under the banner of restoring Americanism/ white privilege, like the Ku Klux Klan.
14 ) The expansion of tabloid journalism media empires like the William R. Hearst that expanded into the area of yellow journalism,political favoritism, and advocacy. Hearst publishing reached its height in the mid 20′s.
15 ) The rise of large and sweeping Christian evangelical (Pentecostal) ministries such as the Four Square Gospel movement founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson, and the establishment of the first “mega church”.
16 ) Hysteria over the teaching of evolution in public schools, culminating in the Scopes “monkey trial” in 1925.
17 ) Climate of apprehension, mistrust, and fear over the effects of internationalism on American culture and politics. (eekk! the French)
Eric Cantor, incoming House Majority Leader, outlined this latter objection to a new in the Wall Street Journal yesterday. Asked about a proposal to fix the nation’s federal deficit co-authored by a Democratic budget expert and noted non-European retired Sen. Pete Domenici (R), which would actually lower taxes on income and corporations, Cantor dismissed it because, basically, parts of it look to him like something a European might consider.
18 ) The emergence of media driven (radio) cult personalities defining dubious political narratives, like Father Coughlin.
**just a note to say much of the following is a reiteration/encapsulation of some previous stuff**
I ended the last (most recent) post as such:
“Like their view on government, they don’t mind big government as long as its driven by corporate welfare, as they don’t mind supporting culture and family, as long as its the complicit to authority, retrograde, and backward looking kind.”
Thought I’d fill out this ending with some further elucidation. When a Jim DeMint talks about social conservatism, what he’s really talking about (beyond the complicit to authority, retrograde, and backward looking kind) is whats left of the traditional inherited obligation family/social structure. This is the old model family structure that was grounded in the agrarian based past, where its members, as they grew into maturity were given highly structured, restricted, and pre-scripted rolls to play within the extended family and society. There were both, benefits, for those who took upon themselves to assume and protect their assigned rolls, and punishments for those looking to exercise greater personal autonomy. Like most tribal based social societies, the primary desire and design is toward maintaining the societal status-quo traditions that evolved, and served society over very long periods of time. And also like most tribal based societies they are authoritarian bound and predicated usually, on a set of eternal religious scripture that reinforces authority.The baseline characteristics of these traditions then, are both highly statist and static, in that they are highly collectivist ( with many predetermined expectations) and highly resistant to change ( or very uncreative). This structure should be seen in comparison to the “negotiated family structure” that arrived with the advent of modernity. In the negotiated family structure preordained rolls and participation are held as something to be decided upon by the participants, weighing the potential benefits, costs, and abilities against personal autonomy. Essentially, this is the modern, liberal variant of family and social life evolved in response to the new found individualism that came with in tandem with the increase in free time, technological advances, internationalism, and scientific orientation. This type of family structure is NOT what Jim DeMint is talking about when speaks of family and social fabric.
What DeMint is referring to when he talks social conservative is specifically the old tradition bound inherited obligation family structure.. At first glace it would seem counter-intuitive that in a modernist society, the insatiable wheels of innovation, technology, and capitalism would find a natural ally in the collectivist, static, and un-dynamic social element. Certainly, modernity if nothing else, is the epitome of flexible change, adaptation, mobility, and free thinking. What possible connection to the demands of modern society, could be fulfilled empowering the vestiges of backward looking tribal society? I think the answer to this question is several fold.
First off, the old tribal elements are at once, both the most threatened element of society – by the forces of modernity and it’s contrarian “negotiated (instead of inherited) obligation family structure” – and so, are the most likely segment of society to grasp at any hopes or illusions that promise its preservation. This promise (not unlike, the check is in the mail) is fulfilled in the various identity and dog whistle social issues republicans make and never really deliver on, and why would they? To deliver on these proposals would dry up the need.
Secondly, there is a mirror image connection to the preeminence of hierarchy and deference to authority in both the the old school and the republican ideal. To the old school, there is in this a comforting distant echo of the feudal past when everything had its place, its honor, and most importantly, its resistance to change and infallible consistency come immortality.
Thirdly, as implied in the first, the right wing tolerates this little deal with the devil (or Christ if you will, depending on how you look at it) because it has no intention of ever delivering, and thus disarming the need, the social wants of the old school. They are well aware that the backward, static, anti-science, and fantasy oriented crowed is no model for a successfully competing modernist society. Because a modernist society, by definition needs a mobile, educated, creative, and inventive population in order to maintain a competitive edge – it is in many respects is the antithesis of the old school.
And fourth, as I pointed out in the modernism post (below), this arrangement above all else, serves the interests of the economic elite to whom the republican party ( and to a slightly less degree the democratic party) are beholden. Because they never have any intention of directly honoring the demands of the old school – see Tea Party frustration with the republican party old guard – they instead focus on the feared modernism and its dependency on government services. More fully developed modern society NECESSARILY demands greater government intervention into peoples lives in the form of social services, civil guarantees, and security networks. This is clearly the case in the current European social democracies, all of which facilitated the natural growth of government that correspond to the developments of modernism, and the newly created human needs that come with it. People that have personally become an active participant in secular modernist life have, for all intents and purposes, abandoned the traditional old family and social order. Having left the old order means that, while people have much more personal autonomy and freedom of choice, and the opportunity to innovate and be productive, they also find themselves in a position, contrarily, that can no longer rely on the fabric of the old social order to provide basic human needs and securities. And unless government is expanded beyond the narrow parameters of basic national security, police and fire work and into the social realms of education, economic regulation, health care, social security, and the like the chances are pretty good that individuals left to fend entirely on their own devices will sooner rather than later, come to suffer the consequential lack of any or all of the above. This of course, is a more general outline of the modernist dilemma writ large, that is also incidentally, the source driving much of the suspicion within the fine arts on the effects (loneliness, alienation, depersonalization, etc) of modernism experienced on the personal level. When government fails to step in and take up the initiative on behalf of the very citizens that are the creative and entrepreneurial driving force of its competitive edge, then society becomes progressively dysfunctional, chaotic, and ultimately, irrational. See the popularity of Glenn Beck.
The Jim DeMint’s of this world seize upon this dysfunctionality as a self fulfilling prophesy – cut government social programs and create the means to sow chaos – which then is used as proof that liberal modernity and government are failures. This creates a back draft appealing to the religious old schooler’s who flock to the notion of less government as a way to to beat back modernity. And at the same time frees up his elite overlords from the the threats posed by big government to business through taxation, regulation, oversight, and economic intervention. While at the same time preserving enough personal autonomy of the individual necessary for innovation, a large multifaceted mobile if not un-rooted workforce, and the necessarily large amounts of unregulated capital and military hardware useful for expansive international financial exploitations.
Like I said in the previous post, it’s a pretty neat trick where the rich get to eat their cake and keep it too. The rest of us either go back to the static life or take on modernity without the benefit of oversight or security.
Louise Brooks (from a candid portrait) – 2010, 7″ x 9″, spray paint on panel.
The following letter from (silent film era “it girl”) Louise Brooks (also known as Lulu) has come to my attention. It’s dated 1966 and marks the time when some were engaging in a reassessment of Brook’s career, as she had long since faded into obscurity. As the letter indicates, Louise Brooks was much more than a shallow but pretty starlet face or or for that matter, a rebel without a cause. She was astutely aware of the people and things that were swirling around her and was able to put them into a proper social and political context – a context that she, in the end, was to her credit, unwilling to grovel at the foot of.
Thought I should clear up any confusion with regards to modernity in the arts and it’s relationship to culture and society. The word modernity, in general terms is pretty much encapsulated in this Wiki description:
Modernity typically refers to a post-traditional, post-medieval historical period, in particular, one marked by the move from feudalism (or agrarianism) toward capitalism, industrialisation, secularization, rationalization, the nation-state and its constituent institutions and forms of surveillance (Barker 2005, 444). Conceptually, modernity relates to the modern era and to modernism, but forms a distinct concept. Whereas the Enlightenment invokes a specific movement in Western philosophy, modernity tends only to refer to the social relations associated with the rise of capitalism.
Modernist Art works, in this respect, should be seen as both the product of modernism – in that it’s development is contingent on the development of modernism itself, but can also, within the context of modernism, act as reflective mirror on the effects of modernism. This means that modern art, having gained a certain autonomy because of modernity, is now free to develop or construct a critique of modernism. This critical facility of modernism can indeed, as it has always done (in spades), even borrow specifically from the traditional agrarian feudal and/or nativist cultures that have been rejected by modernism. In fact, I would go so far as to say that literally every development (or movement) in modern art has always been referenced and informed by a deep seated index to the old ways. While this state of affairs is usually not “officially” acknowledged, examples are abundant.
One of the principal effects and benefits of modernism was freedom from the rigid and authoritarian constraints imposed within ethno-centric society, which allowed for instance a “rediscovery” of long neglected if not previously unknown societies. The culture of these societies then acted as an inspiration to the new arts, by opening up all manner of pictorial, musical, or dance potentials that had been formally restricted to established rule sets of the former order. Sometimes this happened in obvious ways, like a Paul Gauguin traveling to Tahiti, how Picasso and Braque were spurred on to cubism (and his later styles) through the study of African art, or how many early modernists’ were influenced by Asian art that swept the European continent. In this respect, the advent of modernism brought along with it – through increased trade, technology, and the new sciences, like anthropology and psychology – a whole world of previously unavailable (formal) models upon which to expand into what seemed like new modes of expression.
Another, particularly relevant example of this fusion of the ancient and the contemporary would be the development of Jazz music in America, and we’re back to the twenties again. Because another popular term for the roaring twenties was the Jazz Age. With the development of jazz we have a synthesis of the long gestating structures of African music coupled up with music and instrumentation of European tradition springing forth as an entirely new and unique musical form. This new musical form, along with it’s attendant dance forms (like the Charleston and the Black Bottom) was met and embraced with an entirely new audience of white city people, who for the first time in our history, took the art work of its former slaves as a legitimate, serious, and progressive new art form.